Kamil Gierach-Pacanek
CyberEthical.Me: Hacking for the Security Awareness

CyberEthical.Me: Hacking for the Security Awareness

Kasm Workspaces: Addressing HTTPS error on the fresh installation

Kasm Workspaces: Addressing HTTPS error on the fresh installation

Acquire private Trusted Root Certification Authority

Kamil Gierach-Pacanek
Β·Jan 26, 2022Β·

4 min read

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Table of contents

  • Is it mandatory to have correct SSL certificate?
  • Why not Let's Encrypt?
  • Acquire private Certificate Authority Root Certificate
  • Acquire private certificate for Kasm Workspaces
  • Upload certificates to Kasm and endpoints
  • Conclusion

Based on Create Your Own SSL Certificate Authority for Local HTTPS Development

Is it mandatory to have correct SSL certificate?

Yes and no. In some web projects, you can slip through the default "I know, just let me in" option in browsers. But nowadays, it is hard to find a website that doesn't load the JavaScript - and browser won't let you load a JS from the external sources when certificate is not valid.

From the security point of view - you should not deliver solutions that with invalid certificate. There was a question on the Reddit asked by cool-thinker - if such invalid certificate cases connection to be not encrypted. Let's see it now.

There is a great step-by-step wiki on the HTTPS traffic analysis with Wireshark. By applying this knowledge for the current Kasm Workspaces URL with invalid certificate, you can see that the data is encrypted.

image.png

Don't let it cloud your judgement, though - danger does not come from the lack of encryption, but from the lack of knowledge if the party that signed that certificate can be trusted.

Why not Let's Encrypt?

Let's Encrypt is a well-known, trusted Certificate Authority that allows everyone with the accepted TLD (top-level domain, like *.com or *.org) to generate secure certificate for their websites' SSL connections.

From Let’s Encrypt Community Support:

These are two distinct β€œsystems” with distinct choices (choose one per domain):

  • Use a private certificate [private CA] for a private domain.
  • Use a public certificate [LetsEncrypt] for a public domain.

Another, similar response: Can I create a cert for a private domain?

In our example, we have a private domain that would like to be trusted by the public certificate of Let's Encrypt - that won't work. If we tried to do that: image.png

So now, our plan is:

  1. Become private CA by generating private Root Certificate.
    We will be using this certificate to trust other certificates in the trust chain. Our Root Certificate is the only certificate that needs to be installed on the all systems that will be accessing Kasm Workspaces.
  2. Create new certificate for the usage of Kasm Workspaces.
    This is the certificate that will be imported to the Kasm. This one will show up when accessing Kasm Web UI. Trust is granted by our private CA Root Certificate.

Acquire private Certificate Authority Root Certificate

  1. Generate CA private key:

    $ openssl genrsa -aes256 -out cybethme-ca.key 2048
    
  2. Generate CA Root Certificate (10ys validity):

    $ openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key cybethme-ca.key -sha256 -days 3650 -out cybethme-ca.pem
    

    image.png

  3. ca-certificates expects PEM files with *.crt extension, so let's give it to him:

    $ sudo cp cybethme-ca.pem /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/cybethme-ca.crt
    
  4. Update certificates database and verify:
    $ sudo update-ca-certificates
    # sudo update-ca-certificates --fresh / to rebuild from scratch
    $ awk -v cmd='openssl x509 -noout -subject' '/BEGIN/{close(cmd)};{print | cmd}' < /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt | grep Cyber
    

image.png

Acquire private certificate for Kasm Workspaces

  1. Generate private key:

    $ openssl genrsa -out kasm.rpi.key 2048
    
  2. Create Certificate Signing Request (CSR):

    $ openssl req -new -key kasm.rpi.key -out kasm.rpi.csr
    
  3. Create ext file (kasm.rpi.ext) to supply during making a signing request.

    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment
    subjectAltName = @alt_names
    [alt_names]
    DNS.1 = kasm.rpi
    
  4. Create signed certificate for the Kasm:

    $ openssl x509 -req -in kasm.rpi.csr -CA cybethme-ca.pem -CAkey cybethme-ca.key -CAcreateserial -out kasm.rpi.crt -days 730 -sha256 -extfile kasm.rpi.ext
    

Now you have the CRT certificate that can be used in application.

You may notice that additional SRL file for Root CA is created. It is required by OpenSSL to track serial number of generated certificates - read more about it here.

Upload certificates to Kasm and endpoints

  1. SSH into Kasm server and replace certificate and the private key:

    $ sudo /opt/kasm/bin/stop
    $ sudo cp ~/.certs/kasm.rpi.crt /opt/kasm/current/certs/kasm_nginx.crt
    $ sudo cp ~/.certs/kasm.rpi.key /opt/kasm/current/certs/kasm_nginx.key
    $ sudo /opt/kasm/bin/start
    
  2. Copy CA Root Certificate to the systems that will be using the Kasm Workspaces. It depends on the system, but on Windows - double-click the certificate and import it to Local Machine (or Current User) in Trusted Root Certification Authorities.

  3. Change hosts entry (on endpoint) to point chosen Kasm address to the IP address.

    192.168.0.105 kasm.rpi
    

Now we have access to the Kasm Workspaces without errors on the browser.

image.png

Unfortunately, this is not the end. When I tried to launch an image, I've got an error message. Last step is changing the Upstream Auth Address for the default zone to the local IP address:

image.png

Conclusion

So far, we have a working Kasm Workspaces installation that we can connect via secure SSL connection. After making the device accessible over the Internet, you can perform containerized operations from any system using a browser. In the next tutorials, I will showcase how you can add more images to the Kasm and how you can persist data between sessions.

Check out other guides from the Kasm Workspaces Rapberry Pi series.

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